¡Españoles!: la ciudad de Cádiz, puesta en armas con toda su provincia, con la armada anclada en su puerto y todo el departamento marítimo de la Carraca, declara solemnemente que niega su obediencia al Gobierno que reside en Madrid, asegura que es leal intérprete de los ciudadanos (…) y resuelta a no deponer las armas hasta que la nación recobre su soberanía, manifieste su voluntad y se cumpla.
Hollada (pisoteada) la ley fundamental, convertida siempre antes en celada (oculta) que en defensa del ciudadano; corrompido el sufragio por la amenaza y el soborno; dependiente la seguridad individual, no del derecho propio, sino de la irresponsable voluntad cualquiera de las autoridades, muerto el municipio, pasto la Administración y la Hacienda de la inmoralidad y del agio (del negocio), tiranizada la enseñanza, muda la prensa … Españoles!, quién la aborrece tanto que se atreva a exclamar: ¿Así ha de ser siempre ? (…)
(…) Queremos vivir la vida de la honra y de la libertad.
Queremos que un Gobierno Provisional que represente todas las fuerzas vivas de su país asegure el orden, en tanto que el Sufragio Universal eche los cimientos de nuestra regeneración social y política.
Contamos para realizarlo (…) con el concurso de todos los liberales, unánimes y compactos ante el común peligro; con el apoyo de las clases acomodadas, (…) con los ardientes partidarios de las libertades individuales, cuyas aspiraciones pondremos bajo el amparo de la ley; con el apoyo de los ministros del altar, interesados antes que nadie en cegar en su origen las fuentes del vicio y del ejemplo; con el pueblo todo y con la aprobación… Acudid a las armas no con la furia de la ira, siempre débil, sino con la solemne y poderosa serenidad con que la justicia empuña su espada. ¡Viva España con honra!
This text is a political document, the audience is all the Spanish Nation. The place and date are indicated in the text: Cádiz, September 19, 1868, and it’s signed by the Duque de la Torre, Prim who was a political and military Spanish men who belongs to liberal Union, Domingo Dulce, Serrano a political and military Spanish men who was the president of the council and the last president of the first Spanish´s republic and leader of the Progressive Party, Ramón Nouvilas, Rafael Primo de Rivera, Antonio Caballero de Rodas, Juan Topete military Spanish men, who were military men who headed the uprising against Isabella II and he belongs to the liberal Union. Among the signatories military, we can highlight Serrano, Prim and Topete. The manifesto was written by the unionist writer Adelardo López de Ayala.
Regarding the historical context, this text precedes the uprising which started the revolution of 1868, known as "The Glorious Revolution", in the final phase of Isabella II’s reign (1856-1868),
The main idea of this text is in the third paragraph “Declara solemnemente que niega su obediencia al Gobierno que reside en Madrid, asegura que es leal intérprete de los ciudadanos (…) y resuelta a no deponer las armas hasta que la nación recobre su soberanía, manifieste su voluntad y se cumpla”. With this call the leaders of the uprising are encouraging the citizens to disobey the government of Isabella II for its unconstitutional behaviour, and reaffirm the idea that sovereignty must correspond to the Nation.
Secondary Ideas like:
- The intention to form a provisional government with the participation of all the country.
- The second paragraph explains the reasons why they signatories of the manifesto have to rise up against Isabella II’s regime: violation of the constitutional system, lack of autonomy of municipalities, administrative system corruption, lack of freedom, censorship
The text also says that they have the support of the upper classes (the bourgeoisie) and even with the support of the church, but this wasn’t completely true
This manifesto is the starting point of the revolutionary movement known as the Glorious Revolution (September 1868). Its main causes were:
- Triple economic crisis: financial crisis (railway crash), subsistence crisis (due to bad harvests and drought) and industrial crisis (growth of unemployment due to the lack of USA cotton)
- Political crisis: increasing discredit of the Crown and loss of almost all Isabella II’s support (only the moderates continued to back the Queen), the exclusion of the progressives and democrats from the government, because the Queen always preferred the moderates and, in the last part of her reign, the only change was the alternation of the moderates with the Liberal Union. Protests were repressed by force.
In 1866: the progressives and the democrats signed the Pact of Ostend and agreed on overthrowing the monarchy and calling elections to Constituent Cortes by universal male suffrage. After O’ Donnell’s death, the Liberal Union also joined the conspiracy.
The conspiracy was led by generals Serrano, Prim and Topete. On the 18th September 1868 General Topete rose up with the fleet anchored in Cádiz and on the 19th he issued the “Spain with Honour” Manifesto, calling the people to support the uprising. The city of Cádiz immediately joined the revolution, boards were formed in most of the cities, claiming for universal suffrage, national sovereignty and more liberties. General Prim sailed across the Mediterranean to get the support of the coastal cities and General Serrano confronted the royal troops, commanded by Novaliches, at Alcolea Bridge on the 28th September. After the withdrawal of the royal troops on the 30th September, Isabella II and her government left San Sebastián and took up exile in France. Once again, the popular support was decisive for the triumph of the revolution.
Isabella’s dethroning meant the opening of a new political stage: the Democratic Sexenio and its main stages were:
The Provisional Government, Amadeus I’s monarchy, 1st Republic, and the return of Alphonse of Bourbon as a new king.
At the beginning of October, a Provisional Government was formed, presided by General Serrano and made up by 5 progressives and 4 unionists only. They ordered the dissolution of the revolutionary boards and the disarmament of the Freedom Volunteers (Voluntarios de la Libertad, urban militia appeared in September). The boards that resisted were dissolved by force. They made economic decisions also and call of the elections to Constituent Cortes, which wrote the 1869 Constitution, which included universal suffrage, as the manifesto promised. As the Cortes decided that Spain would continue to be a monarchy, General Serrano was appointed Regent and General Prim became prime minister and was in charge of looking for a monarch for the country. There were several candidates, discarded by different reasons (Duke of Montpensier, Ferdinand of Coburg, Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Espartero…). Finally, the Italian Amadeus of Savoy accepted and was voted by the Cortes, but some days before his arrival, on the 30th December 1870, Prim was killed.
The provisional government also had to face the outbreak of an independence war in Cuba (Ten Years´War or Great Cuba War, between 1868 and 1878) started in October 1868 with the Cry of Yara, an independence manifesto issued by the Creole Carlos Manuel Céspedes who promised the abolition of slavery. But the sugar oligarchy of the West of the island opposed and confronted both the rebels and Spanish government.
Amadeus I had very little support from the beginning because the aristocrats didn´t accept him, the hierarchy of the church and the people too. In addition a new Carlist War (the third one) broke up in 1872 with a new pretender to the throne (Charles VII). Finally Amadeus I had a confrontment with the government due to some military appointments in the artillery crops and decide to abdicate on the 10th February 1873. As there wasn´t any option the Cortes, voted for the Republic on the 11th February. It lasted for 11 months and was characterized by its permanent instability and the accumulation of difficulties made it impossible to put any program into practice.
Some problems were:
Cantonal revolution: many cities and regions proclaimed themselves independent (cantons) and tried to create a Federal Republic from below. The government repressed all these uprisings, which contributed to make them lose popular support. Cartagena canton resisted until 1874. Expansion of the cantonal revolution and the Carlist War. Pavía´s coup, Pavía was a Madrid´s captain general who evacuated the cortes, after this, a new government was formed, presided by General Serrano (Liberal Union), with no republicans. No one defended the Republic. Although it officially continued to exist until December 1874, in fact it was a dictatorship, during the last stage of the Republic. Finally Canovas del Castillo worked to get wide support to restore the monarchy with Alphonse, Isabella II´son.
Finally on the 29th December General Martinez Campos proclaimed Alphonse of Bourbon King.
In conclusion, this manifesto is the starting point of the revolutionary movement known as the Glorious Revolution and Spain will have a period (1868-1874), of full national sovereignty and universal suffrage, although very unstable, with various events, such as the reign of Amadeus of Savoy, proclamation of the First Republic, Carlist insurrection, which degenerate in the return of the Bourbons of Spain, in the figure of Alphonse XII. The text also says that they have the support of the upper classes (the bourgeoisie) and even with the support of the church, but this wasn’t completely true.